Selection, evaluation and use of sharps box (Serialization 3)

I-Introduction
The General Administration of Occupational Safety and Health Management predicts that more than 56 million workers in health care and related fields are at risk of exposure to blood-borne pathogens including AIDS, hepatitis B, hepatitis C and other potential sources of infection. The transmission of occupational blood-borne pathogens (including AIDS, hepatitis B, and hepatitis C) has been fully recorded. Continuous monitoring of needlestick injuries and other sharp weapon-related injuries shows that occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens is still a major hidden danger in the field of public health.

The main route of occupational exposure to blood-borne pathogens is skin trauma. Medical staff need to manipulate sharp instruments and instruments such as hypodermic syringes, suture needles, intravenous blood collection equipment, phlebotomy equipment, and scalpels.

As many as 800,000 needlestick injuries occur in hospitals every year. However, because many accidents are not reported on healthcare and public safety devices, the true incidence of sharp weapon trauma is unknown. The CDC study estimates that the seroconversion rate of parenteral contact with infected blood is 6% to 30% for exposure to hepatitis B, 5% to 10% for exposure to hepatitis C, and 0.3% for exposure to AIDS. The CDC's other surveillance data on needlestick injuries shows that 86% of reported occupational exposures to HIV originate from hollow needles.

Needlestick injuries most often occur among health care workers because they are heavily involved in direct patient care. Nurses and puncture physicians accounted for the largest proportion of reported accidents. Other health care workers face threats from certain types of sharp weapons, for example, surgeons (scalpels and suture needles), dentists (drills), cleaners and laundry workers (pillows discarded or lost in waste and clothing) . The use of safer needle products and other measures to prevent injury from sharp objects should be part of the overall prevention of needle stick injuries. Compliance with standard warnings to prevent exposure to blood-borne pathogens should also be part of the overall strategy. Not only that, the monitoring of needle stick injuries is a necessary part of the prevention and control of sharp weapon injuries. As far as direct protective measures are concerned, it is necessary to accurately assess the frequency and circumstances of these injuries.

Hospital needle stick studies have shown that many accidents occur after the instrument is used and is being processed. As many as one-third of accidents are believed to have occurred during processing. These injuries are always related to many factors, including the unreasonable handling of sharps by the user, the inadequate design of the sharps box, the unreasonable placement of the sharps box and the overfilling of the sharps box.

In the medical environment, consistent and correct use of a strong sharps case has been proven to reduce the incidence of needlestick injuries. Studies have shown that placing treatment containers in all wards and treatment rooms will reduce the frequency of sharp weapon injuries. Moreover, according to the investigation, the reasonable placement of the sharps box will reduce as much as 80% of sharps injuries. Cost-benefit studies have shown that when comparing the increased costs of material management with the reduced costs of accident compensation, the sharps box is cost-effective --- even when the direct and indirect costs of accident compensation (medical diagnosis and follow-up, Treatment costs and lost working time) are considered at the same time.

Adding engineering controls similar to the use of sturdy sharps boxes and tissue controls is a vital part of the overall prevention strategy. This includes reducing unnecessary sharps, changing the instrument manipulation process, staff education and training, and placing sharps boxes where sharps are used

As the entire needlestick prevention plan, the purpose of this document is to provide a model for selecting sharp weapon handling devices and evaluating their effectiveness. Disposable and recyclable sharps disposal devices are included. This plan is intended to be used by practitioners, purchasers and others who are responsible for the selection process.


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